Był albo nie był, oto jest pytanie…

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Wierzę w Szekspira. Nie stawiam mu ołtarzy i nie odprawiam modłów nad jego dziełami, ale wierzę. Może dlatego, że wielu próbowało i próbuje podważyć jego istnienie. Słusznie czy niesłusznie, zdecydowanie jestem po stronie tych, którzy twierdzą, że Szekspir naprawdę żył. Trudno powiedzieć, na ile jest to prawdziwe przekonanie, a na ile usilne pragnienie, aby była to prawda. Obojętnie jednak, czy to prawda czy złudzenie – ja wierzę. A reszta jest milczeniem.

 
Szekspir ze Stratford nie napisał żadnej sztuki, a przynajmniej dopóty, dopóki nie znajdzie się osoba, która udowodni, że jest inaczej – tak powiedział słynny amerykański pisarz – Mark Twain. Jednak nie tylko on podważał istnienie poety. Wśród entuzjastów podobnych teorii był m.in. Charles Dickens czy Zygmunt Freud. Wszystko zaczęło się w dziewiętnastym wieku, w czasie masowego rozpowszechniania dzieł dramatopisarza i coraz większej adoracji Szekspira na ówczesnych terenach Wielkiej Brytanii. W końcu gdy wzrasta liczba fanów, pojawiają się i sceptycy. Zwłaszcza jeśli uwielbienie jest na tyle silne, że zyskuje własną nazwę; w tym wypadku „bardolatry”, które oznacza, ni mniej, ni więcej, idealizację Szekspirowskich dzieł. Podobne zainteresowanie dramatami poety wzbudziło również zaciekawienie jego biografią. I tu pojawiły się problemy. Prawda jest taka, że o życiu Williama ze Stratford wiemy bardzo niewiele. Każda poświęcona mu książka jest prędzej próbą odtworzenia jego życiorysu niż rzetelnym źródłem informacji. Większość też wieńczy słowo „prawdopodobnie”, a mało co okazuje się faktem. Co więcej, nikt nie wie, gdzie twórca przebywał i co robił w latach 1585-1592. Biografia pisarza jest więc biografią skonstruowaną z większej liczby zagadek niż odpowiedzi, co u niektórych czytelników potęguje ekscytację, a u innych – wzbudza podejrzenia. Może był nikim więcej jak niepiśmiennym synem rękawicznika? Może użyczał swego nazwiska tym, którzy za wszelką cenę chcieli pozostać anonimowi?
 
Powiedz – kim naprawdę byłeś, Williamie Szekspirze? Wszak nigdzie nie ma wzmianki o twym wyjątkowym talencie, żadna kronika nie wspomina twej pisarskiej kariery. Urodziłeś się w rodzinie analfabetów i twoje córki też – prawdopodobnie – analfabetkami były. Nie zachowały się twoje listy ani pamiętniki, a przecież musiałeś je pisać, jeśli rzeczywiście byłeś tak ważny. Gdzie twoje rękopisy? Oprócz kilku niezgrabnych, świadczących o miernej umiejętności pisania podpisów, nie ma nic więcej. Skąd ten zbieg okoliczności, że szkoła, do której mogłeś uczęszczać, nie prowadziła uczniowskiej kartoteki? Czy to aby na pewno przypadek? A skoro jesteśmy przy edukacji… Jak w tej małej mieścinie, prowincji zaledwie, mogłeś zdobyć na tyle wysokie wykształcenie, aby twoje bogate słownictwo zachwycało miliony ludzi na całym świecie? Podobno napisałeś tak wiele sztuk… Tylko czemu nie są one jednolite stylistycznie? Co więcej, poruszasz w nich tematy, o których, jako chłopak z prowincji, nie powinieneś mieć pojęcia. Mówią o tobie jako o biznesmenie, ale nikt nie nazywa cię poetą. Możliwe, że jedynie użyczyłeś swego nazwiska tym, którzy pragnęli pozostać anonimowi. Interesujące, że będąc znanym autorem, nie zdołałeś wykreować jednolitego podpisu. Dowodzi to, że nie byłeś jedną osobą, ale kilkoma, dla których stanowiłeś jedynie pseudonim. Prawdopodobne jest, że twoje nazwisko istniało, ale ty – nie. A na pewno nie jako autor. Kto się skrywał pod twoim imieniem? Może Edward de Vere – oksfordzki hrabia, absolwent tamtejszej uczelni, poeta i autor sztuk. Był dworzaninem, więc doskonale znał dworskie realia, o których zwykłeś pisać. Jego życiorys ściśle wiązał się z, podobno, twoimi sztukami. Zapewne swoje dzieła musiał publikować pod pseudonimem, bo inaczej uwłaczałoby to jego arystokratycznej godności. A jeśli nie on, to sir Francis Bacon albo Christopher Marlowe, którego śmierć mogła być tylko upozorowana? Oprócz nich jest jeszcze osiemdziesięciu innych, którzy bardziej pasowali do roli barda niż ty. Co masz nam do powiedzenia, Williamie Szekspirze? Czy gdyby teraz postawiono cię przed ławą przysięgłych, mógłbyś wytłumaczyć swoje zdolności, niewątpliwy kunszt pisarski, wiedzę i rozeznanie w szlacheckich realiach? A może nareszcie obaliłbyś swój mit? Pamiętaj tylko, że składanie fałszywych zeznań jest karalne.

Wyobraźmy sobie współczesny sąd nad Szekspirem. On (lub odgrywający go Joseph Fiennes, którego gorąco pozdrawiam, jeśli to czyta) siedzący na ławie oskarżonych, obserwujący współczesnych prawników ubranych w dziwne togi i sprawdzających godzinę na swoich złotych rolexach. Stoją po drugiej stronie i rzucają kolejnymi teoriami, z których żadna nie znalazła, jak dotąd, potwierdzenia. Warto im jednak poświęcić trochę czasu, gdyż dłużej zgłębiane, mogą zasiać wątpliwości w głowie najbardziej zatwardziałego wyznawcy Szekspira. Zwłaszcza jeśli propagowały je takie jednostki jak Mark Twain, Charles Dickens, Zygmunt Freud, Kenneth Branagh czy królowa Elżbieta I…

Do najbardziej znanych niewątpliwie należy teoria zwana oxfordzką, która zakłada, że pod słynnym nazwiskiem krył się przywołany wcześniej Edward de Vere. Choć teoria była głoszona już w XIX wieku, jej autorstwo przypisuje się angielskiemu nauczycielowi Johnowi Thomasowi Looneyowi, który w 1920 roku wydał na ten temat publikację.

Analogicznie do owej teorii powstały również: baconian theory (teoria bakońska), która za prawdziwego autora Szekspirowskich dzieł uważa sir Francisa Bacona, marlovian theory (teoria marlowiańska) wskazująca Christophera Marlowe’a i derbyite theory – podająca nazwisko hrabiego Derby – Williama Stanleya. Oprócz wyżej wymienionych powstały również teorie grupowe. Umieszczano w nich wszystkie postacie, które można było podejrzewać o napisanie znanych wszystkim dramatów. W sumie tych osób wymieniono osiemdziesiąt cztery. Szekspir nie został jednak pozostawiony sam sobie. Na straży jego godności stały i nadal stoją dziesiątki tysięcy szekspirologów, którzy – opierając się na zdobytych przez siebie dowodach – obalają kolejne mity kwestionujące istnienie poety.

 

Mówicie o rodzinie, wykształceniu, a nawet podpisie. Wątpicie w istnienie Williama Szekspira, szukając innych na jego miejsce. W swych oskarżeniach zapominacie jednak o wielu faktach. Może o nich nie doczytaliście? A może po prostu nie chcecie o nich mówić? Po pierwsze, wypowiadający się o Szekspirze dramaturdzy sceny elżbietańskiej nie mieli wątpliwości co do jego istnienia. Był wielokrotnie wspominany. Co więcej, nie tylko jego życie zostało słabo udokumentowane, tyczy się to większości tamtejszych twórców, którzy wywodzili się z biednych środowisk. Najwięcej informacji można znaleźć o tych, którzy mieli przywilej posiadania tytułu szlacheckiego lub popadli w konflikt z prawem. Zapominacie również o tym, że choć biografia Szekspira jest niepełna, pełne są biografie pisarzy, których podstawiacie na jego miejsce – Christophera Marlowe’a czy Bena Jonsona. Dowody wskazują jasno, iż William Szekspir ze Stratford był aktorem i tworzył pod własnym nazwiskiem. Jego imię przywoływało wielu znanych wtedy twórców. W pierwszym wydanym po śmierci poety zbiorze jego utworów kilkoro pisarzy oddało mu jawny hołd, niektórzy nawet dedykowali mu swoje wiersze i dramaty. Poza tym jego istnienie potwierdzał nawet jeden z elżbietańskich cenzorów, który dopuszczając kolejne sztuki do wystawienia, napisał jasno: „King Lear” written by Master William Shakespeare. Dowodzi to, że musiał się z nim konsultować osobiście. Dlaczego o tym nie powiedzieliście? Bo zaburzyłoby to wasze teorie lub odebrało argumenty?

Śmiem twierdzić, że sąd nad Szekspirem byłby fascynującym, a przede wszystkim głośnym wydarzeniem. Nie ulega wątpliwości, że zarówno szekspirolodzy, jak i ich przeciwnicy wysuwają argumenty, które trudno obalić. A w tym wszystkim jednego nie da się potwierdzić: istnienia lub nieistnienia najsłynniejszego światowego poety. Rosnąca wokół niego tajemnica wzbudza ekscytację, czyniąc jego postać jeszcze bardziej interesującą. Jako ludzie lubimy tajemnice. W tym wypadku możemy być bardzo zadowoleni – ta jest jedną z największych. Mówimy w końcu o najważniejszym ziemskim twórcy, nad którego życiorysem badania są prowadzone od lat. I nie wiemy o nim prawie nic, ciągle natrafiamy na kolejne dziury w jego biografii, których nie potrafimy zapełnić. Jak na złość, nie możemy nic z tym zrobić. Dlatego uważam, że istnienie Szekspira to kwestia wiary. I ja w niego usilnie wierzę. Wierzę, że ponad czterysta lat temu chodził po skrzypiących deskach teatru Globe i zastanawiał się, czy zostanie zapamiętany. Lub myślał, jak ze swojego istnienia uczynić tajemnicę.

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