W ostatnim artykule z cyklu Oczami polonistki przedstawiłam błędy językowe, które najczęściej pojawiają się w internecie i mediach. Dzisiaj chciałabym Wam opowiedzieć o… przecinkach. Nie skupię się na zasadach ich stawiania – nie zamierzam Was wyręczać, ale raczej zachęcić do sięgania po słowniki – tylko również na zasadzie zestawienia (jak poprzednio) postaram się przekazać Wam podstawową wiedzę o tych malutkich, pozornie nic nieznaczących znakach.

PRZECINEK A… APOSTROF i CUDZYSŁÓW DRUKARSKI

W dobie internetu zapominamy o tym, że istnieją rodzime znaki interpunkcyjne. Dla nas takim znakiem jest cudzysłów, który w Anglii wygląda zupełnie inaczej. Nazywa się on cudzysłowem drukarskim i należy go używać zgodnie z zasadami polskiej interpunkcji. Niestety, internet zabrał nam wiele znaków i z klawiatury obecnie możemy wstawić cudzysłów angielski (dla niewtajemniczonych: górny). Mało tego! Bywają ludzie, którzy nie wiedzą, czym jest cudzysłów, i próbują go tworzyć z dwóch przecinków i dwóch apostrofów – o, tak: ,,…’’ – albo z dwóch przecinków i prawidłowego górnego – o, tak: ,,…”. Piękne cuda, prawda? Szczególnie gdy widzi się to na forach internetowych czy w postach bloggerów, którzy – uważający się za znawców literatury wszelakiej – powinni jednak co nieco na ten temat wiedzieć. Mnie to razi. Zdaję sobie sprawę, że wielu nie. Jednym z ciekawszych argumentów jest stwierdzenie: „przynajmniej nie używam angielskiego, tylko staram się, aby wyglądał podobnie do polskiego”. No tak… ale czy nie można by poświęcić kilku minut i zajrzeć chociażby na stronę Wikipedii, na której znajdziemy skróty klawiszowe umożliwiające nam wstawienie POLSKIEGO (nie podobnego, tylko identycznego!) cudzysłowu. Mnie jako redaktorce nie trzeba tego tłumaczyć, bo zostało mi to wpojone już dawno, a resztę doczytałam, ale żeby nie być gołosłowna, poniżej zaprezentuję Wam owe skróty, tak abyście mogli z nich korzystać i nie popełniać błędów. Nie, nie wywyższam się, bo to wiem, a Wy nie… Ja po prostu stwierdzam fakty i staram się choć w najmniejszym stopniu pomóc osobom, dla których interpunkcja stanowi tylko przykry obowiązek. Dla mnie jest ważna, ale ja należę do tego dość skromnego grona redaktorów, które nie twierdzi, że „nikt nie zauważy” (są i tacy redaktorzy, którzy mają przecinki za nic takiego…).

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PRZECINKI NAPRAWDĘ SĄ WAŻNE!

Chciałabym Wam udowodnić, że są one ważne. Nie, nie martwcie się, nie przytoczę po raz setny czy któryś z kolei zdań typu „Twoja stara piła leży w piwnicy” i „Twoja stara piła, leży w piwnicy”, bo są to banalne i bezużyteczne przykłady obrazujące, że interpunkcja jest istotnym elementem języka (każdego, nie tylko polskiego). Od podstawówki wpajano nam, że przecinki stawiamy przed „że”, „który”, „ale” itd., a nie stawiamy przed „i”, „albo”, „oraz” itd. To jest logiczne, wie o tym każdy… Tylko czy na pewno tak jest? W tej chwili wielu może zrezygnować z dalszego czytania artykułu i oburzonym tonem powiedzieć: „Co ona gada, przecież w każdym słowniku jest tak napisane, nauczyciele o tym trąbili…”. No właśnie. Ale mieliby rację tylko częściowo. Słowniki? Owszem, zawierają tę zasadę, ale z odnośnikiem, który wskazuje pewne wyjątki. Tego już nikt nie raczy zauważyć, no bo po co? Tak powstają kwiatki typu „mimo, że”, „chyba, że” i inne – które swoją drogą są niezauważane przez nauczycieli. Bo na studiach polonistycznych nie uczy się ortografii i interpunkcji, a jeśli się uczy, to na pewno nie tego, jak zapisać „chyba że”. Dlaczego? Jesteśmy osobami w miarę rozgarniętymi i powinniśmy umieć korzystać ze słowników. Niestety, wielu studentów polonistyki wychodzi z założenia, że skoro już studiuje, to nie musi tego robić, bo po prostu to wie. To nic, że niejeden student chemii pisze i mówi po polsku lepiej niż polonista.

Zastanówmy się czasami nad tym, czym jest dla nas język. Bo o tym, że jest podstawowym środkiem komunikacji międzyludzkiej, wiemy wszyscy i raczej nie trzeba tego nikomu wyjaśniać. Zastanówmy się też, po co NAM interpunkcja. Czy uważamy, że bez niej dałoby się porozumieć, czy wręcz przeciwnie – stanowi dla nas ważne narzędzie przeznaczone do poprawnego pisania. Jeśli większość z Was odpowiedziała, że nie jest ona bardzo ważna, to może lepiej przestać oddychać i nie robić pauz w mówieniu. Niech każdy z nas mówi: „Cześćcouciebiesłychaćumniedobrze” itd. Porzućmy też polskie znaki, bo tylko obciążają nas finansowo i przez nie za głupi SMS musimy płacić 25 groszy, a nie 10.

Interpunkcja jest ważna. Nie tylko dlatego, że trzeba wskazać miejsce, w którym zrobiłoby się pauzę w mówieniu. Do tego służy nam przede wszystkim intonacja. Interpunkcja jest jednym z tych środków, za pomocą których wskazujemy na związki składniowe w zdaniach. Dlatego właśnie często doprowadzamy do nieporozumień, gdy stawiamy przecinek przed „który”, ale nie pamiętamy o tym, że on coś znaczy. Składnia jest tym działem językoznawstwa, który objaśnia różnorodne funkcje znaków interpunkcyjnych w polszczyźnie. I żeby być Polakiem (i studentem polonistyki), trzeba zdawać sobie sprawę z istnienia czegoś takiego. Język nie służy tylko do komunikacji słownej – o tym musimy wiedzieć. W rozmowie z koleżanką nie musimy zwracać uwagi na interpunkcję, bo i tak się dogadamy. Zwróćmy jednak uwagę na to, że dużą część życia zajmuje nam pisanie. Czegokolwiek. Czy to notatek, czy listów, czy nawet SMS-ów. Ta „stara piła leżąca w piwnicy” czy „stara, która piła i leży w piwnicy” (wszystko jedno) jest logiczna – aby oddzielić coś od czegoś, musimy postawić przecinek. O tym wie nawet dziecko z podstawówki. Ale nie o to w tym wszystkim chodzi. Albo nie tylko o to. Musimy mieć świadomość tego, że przecinki nie służą tylko do różnicowania, ale przede wszystkim do wskazywania związków. Jeśli interpunkcję w swoich postach na blogu czy na Facebooku uważacie za mało ważną, to Wasza sprawa, ale weźcie pod uwagę, że świadczy to o Waszym stosunku do przekazu jako takiego. (Są nawet tacy, którzy w ogóle nie stosują znaków interpunkcyjnych – tych pozdrawiam najserdeczniej, bo nigdy nic z ich wpisów nie rozumiem).

SKŁADNIA, ACH TA SKŁADNIA

Ostatnią rzeczą, na którą chciałabym zwrócić uwagę, jest podejście do składni w ogóle. Wiem, miałam mówić o przecinkach, ale nie mogę tego pozostawić bez słowa komentarza. To, jak niektórzy formułują zdania, nawet te najprostsze, niekiedy niewiele ma wspólnego ze składnią. A jeśli już, to chyba nieistniejącą, indywidualną, bo nie umiem inaczej nazwać pisania zdań niemających żadnego sensu. Kto to zrozumie? Czy czytanie powinno polegać na domyślaniu się? Bo jeśli tak, to wielu z nas – na przykład redaktorów – powinno dostać medal za każdą „rozszyfrowaną” informację. Po raz trzeci (czy któryś tam) użyję tego zwrotu… Zastanówcie się czasami, po co w ogóle piszecie: po to, żeby ktoś się czegoś dowiedział, czy po to, żeby cokolwiek napisać – ot tak, żeby sobie było, kto przeczyta, ten przeczyta… Wiem, że mamy taką, a nie inną rzeczywistość, w której napisanie wyrazu może sprawiać problem, bo T9 czy brak czasu… ale LITOŚCI! żeby Polak z Polakiem się nie rozumieli? To już chyba lekka przesada, nie sądzicie?

43 KOMENTARZE

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